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CROP PRODUCTION & MANAGEMENT – 01 For Class 8th and NTSE


Hello Students… Today we are going to
start with a new chapter let me write The name of the topic… its Crop
Production And Management Okay, So when I write this topic on the
blackboard… Crop Production and Management, The first question which
comes in our mind is that… What is there this chapter what we are supposed to
study in this so children, as you can see the name itself suggests crop and
production like how the crops are produced what are the different steps
which we follow or has to be followed how it has to be managed and several
terms which is used in agriculture also several instruments which are usually
used in agriculture now the second question which comes in a mind is that
why we have to study this chapter so this thing which I want to clear over
here that still our country is known as agriculture based country around 70% of
our population is still directly or indirectly joined or is linked with
agriculture and so we should know how of what are the different steps or how the
crops or the food between which we eat the grains which we have at a home
reaches to us so to start with children, Actually we all eat food right we all
eat food okay, now let me ask you one thing that… Why we eat food? What is the need of eating? Okay and everybody knows the
answer also it is well known that we eat food for several reasons
say for example to get energy Okay, then maybe for growing for growth,
for lick to be alive okay, to be alive… or maybe for repair of our body, for repair
of our body. Fifth I can take or I can say for the proper functioning of the body. proper functioning of the body okay. So,
these can be the reasons why we eat food Okay now, First of all to get energy now
let me clear up at this point like suppose if someone makes you sit without
giving food even for a day okay and then he gives you many things many good
things are kept in front of you maybe like a very interesting games new
videogame something like that but you won’t be able to play and like you won’t
like rather to play you will ask for the food why because without food we cannot
have any kind of energy because if we’re throwing even a small ball we need to
have energy within us and so the first use, the first thing, first reason why we
have food is to get energy the second is for growth obviously the children who do
not eat properly they suffer from one of the other diseases and we can call them
even malnutrient okay that means for growth, for proper growth of the
body it is very very essential to have proper food now third is to be alive
very rightly said that if you want to be alive if you want to be in this world if
you want your existence you to have food that means to be alive now
how our body like one other time we get you know one of the other like maybe
like small things cutting of the finger, cutting of the nail, cutting of the small
cut we need to repair in general also cells die for having uses in the body
for the formation of new cells for the repair of a body again we need to have
food now again if when we have food when we have proper energy then only the
various processes of our body can take place may be respiration, maybe the other
things like growth I said excretion whatever the circulation of your blood
nothing can function nothing can go smoothly
until and unless we have food. Okay So, First topic is food and my question was, Why do
we need to have food? So here are the answers… Why we need to have food. Now,
Second Question is…From where this food comes? Okay, From where or I can also say
What are the sources? Okay, What are the Sources of our food? Okay, whatever we eat either we get it from plants whatever we are eating either it is coming from plants
or animals… Okay. Now, when we talk about plants everybody know I know these are
very basic things Okay, what I can write I can write Wheat I can write Maize, Okay…
no need to give more examples because we all know now animals I can write Meat, I
can write Egg, Ok… and again many examples and the best
part is we all know this Okay, but now there is a difference between the plants
and animals we all know this one also like plants are the one which prepare
their own food and so these are known as Autotrophs Okay, Now What is the meaning
of Autotrophs? Those organism, those organism which prepare their own food
okay, so those organisms which prepare their own food are known
as what Autotrophs and in this the example is only plants okay, only plants
are the one who follows autotrophic code of nutrition and they form glucose. Glucose
is formed okay. Now if I say that even animals all the animals depend on plants
will it be correct or no I am saying directly or indirectly all the animals
depend upon the plants okay. If I take the example of the Cow, Goat obviously
these are Herbivorous Animals and so these are dependent on plants, but if I
take the example of the Lion, Tiger also even the Lions and the Tigers what they eat? they eat Deer, Okay and Deer in course depends upon the plants so the major source of
the production of the food is Plants. Okay. So, first of all From where we are
getting food? What are the sources of getting food for us? So it can be two
sources rather it can be plants or it can be animals. When we talk about the plants, we have got plenty N number of examples Say Wheat, Maize, Jowar, Barley, Pea. Ok, many examples we have got. Even for the animals we have got many
examples, Meat, Egg, Chicken. Okay… Now, but all animals directly or indirectly they
depend upon the plants for their food Okay, the plants are the only organisms in this universe who can prepare their own food. The preparation of food which
preparation that means the process by which the plants make their own food is
known as photosynthesis and how does this reaction like how does this process
takes place in the presence of what in the presence of like carbon dioxide in
the presence of H2O like these things are utilized and then sunlight okay and
chlorophyl and then what has been made here food is made Okay, So these and even
I should write here O2 Okay. So again it is not a balanced
equation it doesn’t state an equation like by using carbon dioxide and water
in presence of sunlight and chlorophyll what is formed glucose can be formed and
oxygen is a byproduct it is removed out which is used by us
okay so main thing Autotrophs only the plants are the one which can prepare
their own food so like what has to be done like how we can get more food we
will learn in the further topics now see when we talk about the early man okay
when we talk about the early ancient man, he used to be a wanderer okay, What’s the meaning of wanderer? He used
to lead a nomadic life, he used to live a nomadic life. Nomadic life means what?
He used to feed upon raw materials like raw food, raw vegetable okay and he used to
lead his life. Then slowly what happened
even he started growing crops okay so first of all the early man was what, he
was wanderer, or he used to live nomadic life. What is the meaning of nomadic? The one who keep on shifting from one place to another. They used to eat raw food, raw
vegetables first of all and slowly they started growing crops okay and slowly
they started growing crops in this way in this way we saw we we can say that the first time the
agriculture came into existence okay so first of all the early men used to live
a wanderer and a nomadic life and slowly they learn to grow crops and they
started doing agriculture okay now as I told you like everybody, everything, every
living thing depends upon the plants for their food okay so what has to be done
to get new like a better crops more food you know actually our population ranks
second in the world just imagine that so huge population it’s so difficult if the
crop production is not good if the crop which we are getting getting the food
which we have is not good is not enough okay so scientists keep on doing some
researchers or I can say trying to bring some revolution in the field of the
agriculture okay now say for example First can be the Green Revolution. Now,
What’s the meaning of Green Revolution? The food grain okay, the food grain was
increased. Means total focus was given that how the food grains can be increased
okay. This is known as what? Green Revolution like total emphasis was
given how the food grains the management of the food, how the the total
focus was given that how the food the production of the grains could be
increased okay. Now second can be Blue Revolution. Yeah, I can understand
like it is not related with this agriculture but still production of production of fish was focussed, like new
techniques new experiments new research program was conducted that how the
production of fishes can be increased. Now third is White Revolution okay. Now,
What is the meaning of White Revolution? The production of it, deals with the
production of Milk okay, it deals with the production of the Milk. Now, Yellow
Revolution means what? The production of oil seeds was focused on okay and under
trial is Golden Revolution and this one is for the Production of Pulses Okay.
What I mean to explain is that just for the sake to give the proper food, more
enough food to the population of India, And to give better food scientists keep
on researching, keep on bringing some new things okay. So that the quality as well
as the quantity of the food can be improved. Say for example when we talk about
Green Revolution more focus was given on the how the food grain, the production of
food grain can be increased okay. Now, Second is Blue Revolution which
includes the production of the Fishes, Like how the production of fishes can
be increased? Similarly White Revolution, a very famous
revolution okay… It deals with all the how the production of Milk can be
increased okay, how Milk Products, Dairy Products can be focused or can be
increased production can be increased then Yellow Oil Seeds…Which are the
oil seeds? Like say… Sunflower, Soyabean, Mustard, How the
production of these seeds can be increased so that the production of oil
so that the production of the oil can increase okay. Now Golden is all about
Pulses it is under trial like how the pulses the production of the pulses can
be increased so scientists keep on doing certain experiments to bring the things
as a Revolution. Now, I use the term Agriculture okay. I said Agriculture. Now, What is the meaning of Agriculture?
How can we define the Agriculture? So, What is Agriculture? The process
of growing crops, on a large scale is known as Agriculture okay. So, the whole chapter will be focused on the Agriculture. What is agriculture? The
process of growing crops on a large scale is known as Agriculture. So that means, when the crops are grown on the large scale huge quantity then this known as what? Agriculture. Now before starting with Agriculture I would just like to inform
you also about the type or we can see the branches of Agriculture okay. So like
you know why I am telling this like when we are reading agriculture, also we
should know like what can be the different branches okay. So first of all
is Horticulture okay. Now what is the meaning of Horticulture? It is the branch
of Agriculture which deals, okay with the production and the management okay. It deals with the, it is a Branch of
Agriculture, It is a Branch of Agriculture which deals with what? It deals
with the production and management of Fruits and Flowers. Now, I am telling about
the what is Agriculture we all know, The process of growing crops on a large
scale is known as agriculture. Now, I am talking about the Branches of
Agriculture so to start with the first is Horticulture, you all might have heard
somewhere Horticulture it is the Branch of Agriculture which deals with the
Production and Management of Fruits and Flowers. Now, Fruits where, obviously in the orchards and Flowers in the gardens ok. So
it this is a branch with deals with the Fruits and Fowers a very important
Branch of Agriculture. Now Second is Olericulture. Now, this Olericulture
it deals ok with the Production and Management of Vegetables. It deals with the Production and the Management of the Vegetables. Now,Third one is Aquaculture. Okay, Now third one is Aquaculture, means it deals with the Aquatic Plants okay. Means all the development and the management of the aquatic plants and even animals also okay. Now fourth one is Agronomy. Okay now, Fourth one is Agronomy, it deals
with the development management of the Crops and Soil okay. So, the Branches of
Agriculture, there are few more branches but this one is quite enough for you all. So
Horticulture deals with the production of Fruits and Flowers, Olericulture deals with
the production and management of Vegetables. Aquaculture means it deals
with, it is one of the other with a development the more production of the
Aquatic Plants and rather Animals also, Now Agronomy, it deals how to manage, the management of crops and the better like how the quality of the soil can be
improved all these things are dealt with Agronomy okay.
Just have a glance, Early man was a wanderer, he was a nomadic, he used to lead a rather
nomadic life, then somehow he learned to grow the crops and so the agriculture
came into existence. Then Scientists started with sudden revolution so that
the crop productions or one particular crop can increased Green Food Grains,
Blue Fish, White as a color as it suggests Milk, Yellow with the Oil Seeds, Golden
with the Pulses okay. Now the next verse Agriculture, What is Agriculture? To grow
the or the process of growing crops on large scale is known as Agriculture. These are the Branches of Agriculture. Horticulture,
Olericulture, Aquaculture and Agronomy. Okay, So just now we have discussed about
this. So now, I am seeing one word over here Crops okay. Now when I say crops,
What is exactly the meaning of crop is? Okay so, just we will have a look upon
What the crops are? Okay so, when we say Crops,
like see… Crops can be of many types.

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