Imaging at a trillion frames per second | Ramesh Raskar
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Imaging at a trillion frames per second | Ramesh Raskar


Translator: Joseph Geni
Reviewer: Thu-Huong Ha Doc Edgerton inspired us
with awe and curiosity with this photo of a bullet
piercing through an apple, and exposure just a millionth of a second. But now, 50 years later,
we can go a million times faster and see the world
not at a million or a billion, but one trillion frames per second. I present to you
a new type of photography, femto-photography, a new imaging technique so fast that it can create slow motion
videos of light in motion. And with that, we can create cameras
that can look around corners, beyond line of sight, or see inside our body without an x-ray, and really challenge
what we mean by a camera. Now if I take a laser pointer
and turn it on and off in one trillionth of a second — which is several femtoseconds — I’ll create a packet of photons
barely a millimeter wide. And that packet of photons, that bullet, will travel at the speed of light, and again, a million times faster
than an ordinary bullet. Now, if you take that bullet
and take this packet of photons and fire into this bottle, how will those photons
shatter into this bottle? How does light look in slow motion? [Light in Slow Motion …
10 Billion x Slow] Now, the whole event — (Applause) Now remember, the whole event
is effectively taking place in less than a nanosecond — that’s how much time
it takes for light to travel. But I’m slowing down in this video
by a factor of 10 billion, so you can see the light in motion. (Laughter) But Coca-Cola did not
sponsor this research. (Laughter) Now, there’s a lot going on in this movie, so let me break this down
and show you what’s going on. So the pulse enters
the bottle, our bullet, with a packet of photons
that start traveling through and that start scattering inside. Some of the light leaks,
goes on the table, and you start seeing
these ripples of waves. Many of the photons
eventually reach the cap and then they explode
in various directions. As you can see, there’s a bubble of air and it’s bouncing around inside. Meanwhile, the ripples
are traveling on the table, and because of the reflections at the top, you see at the back of the bottle,
after several frames, the reflections are focused. Now, if you take an ordinary bullet and let it go the same distance
and slow down the video — again, by a factor of 10 billion — do you know how long you’ll have to sit
here to watch that movie? (Laughter) A day, a week? Actually, a whole year. It’ll be a very boring movie — (Laughter) of a slow, ordinary bullet in motion. And what about some
still-life photography? You can watch the ripples,
again, washing over the table, the tomato and the wall in the back. It’s like throwing a stone
in a pond of water. I thought: this is how
nature paints a photo, one femto frame at a time, but of course our eye sees
an integral composite. But if you look at this tomato
one more time, you will notice, as the light
washes over the tomato, it continues to glow. It doesn’t become dark. Why is that? Because the tomato is actually ripe, and the light is bouncing
around inside the tomato, and it comes out after several
trillionths of a second. So in the future, when this femto-camera
is in your camera phone, you might be able to go to a supermarket and check if the fruit is ripe
without actually touching it. (Laughter) So how did my team at MIT
create this camera? Now, as photographers, you know, if you take a short exposure photo,
you get very little light. But we’re going to go a billion times
faster than your shortest exposure, so you’re going to get hardly any light. So what we do is we send that bullet — that packet of photons —
millions of times, and record again and again
with very clever synchronization, and from the gigabytes of data, we computationally weave together to create those femto-videos I showed you. And we can take all that raw data
and treat it in very interesting ways. So, Superman can fly. Some other heroes can become invisible. But what about a new power
for a future superhero: To see around corners. The idea is that we could
shine some light on the door, it’s going to bounce, go inside the room, some of that is going to reflect
back on the door, and then back to the camera. And we could exploit
these multiple bounces of light. And it’s not science fiction.
We have actually built it. On the left, you see our femto-camera. There’s a mannequin hidden behind a wall, and we’re going to bounce
light off the door. So after our paper was published
in Nature Communications, it was highlighted by Nature.com, and they created this animation. (Music) [A laser pulse is fired] (Music) Ramesh Raskar: We’re going to fire
those bullets of light, and they’re going to hit this wall, and because of the packet of the photons, they will scatter in all the directions, and some of them will reach
our hidden mannequin, which in turn will again
scatter that light, and again in turn, the door will reflect
some of that scattered light. And a tiny fraction of the photons
will actually come back to the camera, but most interestingly, they will all arrive
at a slightly different time slot. (Music) And because we have a camera
that can run so fast — our femto-camera —
it has some unique abilities. It has very good time resolution, and it can look at the world
at the speed of light. And this way, we know the distances,
of course to the door, but also to the hidden objects, but we don’t know which point
corresponds to which distance. (Music) By shining one laser,
we can record one raw photo, which, if you look on the screen,
doesn’t really make any sense. But then we will take
a lot of such pictures, dozens of such pictures,
put them together, and try to analyze
the multiple bounces of light, and from that, can we see
the hidden object? Can we see it in full 3D? So this is our reconstruction. (Music) (Applause) Now, we have some ways to go before we take this
outside the lab on the road, but in the future, we could create
cars that avoid collisions with what’s around the bend. Or we can look for survivors
in hazardous conditions by looking at light reflected
through open windows. Or we can build endoscopes that can see
deep inside the body around occluders, and also for cardioscopes. But of course,
because of tissue and blood, this is quite challenging, so this is really a call for scientists to start thinking about femto-photography as really a new imaging modality to solve the next generation
of health-imaging problems. Now, like Doc Edgerton,
a scientist himself, science became art — an art of ultra-fast photography. And I realized that all the gigabytes of data
that we’re collecting every time, are not just for scientific imaging. But we can also do a new form
of computational photography, with time-lapse and color coding. And we look at those ripples. Remember: The time between each of those ripples
is only a few trillionths of a second. But there’s also something
funny going on here. When you look at the ripples
under the cap, the ripples are moving away from us. The ripples should be moving towards us. What’s going on here? It turns out, because we’re recording
nearly at the speed of light, we have strange effects, and Einstein would have loved
to see this picture. (Laughter) The order at which events
take place in the world appears in the camera
sometimes in reversed order. So by applying the corresponding
space and time warp, we can correct for this distortion. So whether it’s for photography
around corners, or creating the next generation
of health imaging, or creating new visualizations, since our invention, we have open-sourced all the data
and details on our website, and our hope is that the DIY,
the creative and the research communities will show us that we should stop obsessing
about the megapixels in cameras — (Laughter) and start focusing
on the next dimension in imaging. It’s about time. Thank you. (Applause)

About Ralph Robinson

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100 thoughts on “Imaging at a trillion frames per second | Ramesh Raskar

  1. So if light bouncing back can produce an image, I wonder if light itself stores any data. For those of you whom think wtf, don’t bother messaging because back in the time when phones hadn’t been invented, you’d have been the same if someone mentioned the theory about phones. A brain that’s not open enough to imagine future tech.

    If light does somehow store images, might the sun be a huge recording device. Light you could if you knew how watch the earth from almost any century past.

    How cool would that be.

  2. Это круто!!! Снимаю шляпу….👍👍👍 Почему я только сейчас увидел это видео???????

  3. Шарлатан. И много у вас таких? Может в общих чертах расскажет о принципах работы этой камеры, а мы посмеемся вместе. )))))

  4. This guy is very bad at explaining what is happening. I left with more questions than answers. Maybe if he showed in real time what we are seeing before or after the slow motion video. Is it just a flash of light, or what? I don't understand, but maybe because I am not smart enough.

  5. Forgot to mention the military aspect of this – the desire to control other people first and the the desire to benefit humanity afterwards ; despite all these advancements the human nature has not changed ; in real terms no advancement , rather moral degradation !

  6. TO NEGATIVE COMMENTS & DISLIKES ,
    NOTHING IS I M POSSIBLE IN THIS WORLD ,

    IN 1970s DO ANY ONE HAS IDEA OF TODAY's SMART MOBILE PHONE….?

    IN 1970s DO ANY ONE HAS IDEA OF TODAY's INDIAN SPACE PROGRAM….?

    Indian Space Research Organisation – Wikipedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Space_Research_Organisation

    The Indian Space Research Organisation is the space agency of the Government of India … one hundred and four satellites in a single rocket (PSLV-C37), a world record. … of a reusable launch vehicle, human spaceflight, a space station, controlled soft lunar landing, interplanetary probes, and a solar spacecraft mission.

  7. So in the nano second as the light travels thru the bottle does not the temp rise and drop very fast too ?

  8. I really want to know more about these events sometimes appearing in reverse order due to space/time warp

  9. That’s light … I have just seen what the speed of light looks like.. wow .. amazing that’s great made my day/week

  10. so, its really light that vanishes.. not dark that takes over.. if someone noticed that picture of the apple, it was like as if someone is leaving. idk if i make sense or not but this is how i think it is..

  11. At 9:30 it says about ripples can any one define it that why waves are going away from us or give me the name of phenomena going on here

  12. This should change the voter's mind and lead to essentially DIRECTIONLESS scientific research by necessarily ATHEISTIC scholars ONLY – in Parliament.

  13. wow, that's all i can say. And Einstein said,"only on truth:light and the speed of it". This amazing trillion images a second, that's fast alot of datar, like people ub Bayone NJ Dater, like terlet for toilet.

  14. Space time was not Einstien it was Toth from the Emerald tablets, 38,000 years ago. Einstien was a fraud and a C pass major.

  15. WOW! really the best video on Youtube. I've always thougth about those very very very fast time scales. Amazing.

  16. It is open for the public, but the military has its nasty ways to be the first to confiscate inventions like this and their "hidden" possibilities. Mr Raskar is, as far as I believe, sincere about how this invention could help humanity. Unfortunately as in most cases to help repair the damage done by these brilliant inventions. Ironically the talk started with the picture of a bullet penetrating an apple. When will mankind finally see the light ?

  17. Should've also mentioned that the bottle is filled with water, which definitely effects how we see the light travel and how fast the light takes to get from point a to point b, since the water acts as a medium.

  18. It just looked like someone shining a flashlight from left to right on the outside reflecting the light back. It didn't reflect when it hit the label. Not saying it's not true. Just saying you could create this look with and iPhone flashlight and slomo as well.

  19. Seeing around corners with bounced photons. We've been doing that for hundreds of years. We call it a mirror. What he is doing is cool, but redirecting photons is old, not new. His new way has exciting applications though.

  20. A very well positioned video. Take a Femto of an Antigrav…let's see your clever camera capture the distortion.

  21. Imaging specialist Jinyang Liang and his colleagues, led by Caltech's Lihong Wang, have developed what they call T-CUP: the world's fastest camera, capable of capturing 10 trillion (1013) frames per second (Fig. 1). This new camera literally makes it possible to freeze time to see phenomena—and even light—in extremely slow motion."It's an achievement in itself," says Jinyang Liang, the leading author of this work, who was an engineer in COIL when the research was conducted, "but we already see possibilities for increasing the speed to up to one quadrillion (10 exp 15) frames per second!" Speeds like that are sure to offer insight into as-yet undetectable secrets of the interactions between light and matter.
    https://phys.org/news/2018-10-world-fastest-camera-trillion.html

  22. I just felt why in India we are forced to study deeply in class 11th and 12th. Just felt proud of our education system because i am in 12th standard and i am able to understand whole video from a scientific point of view.

  23. So wtf, did Indiana Jones and Co. sweep in and grab this technology and bury it in a warehouse somewhere ?

  24. Did you really have to do it with a big fucking "Coca-Cola" logo on the bottle? Was it THAT complicated to take a simple bottle with no branding on it? For fuck's sake…

  25. Too smart guy, but he did two mistakes at the same time: doing free commercial to Coca-Cola and also using a junk drink to be associated to his invention.

  26. so how long until we have that machine from deja vu movie comes real and we can rewind time based upon how the light is bouncing around somewhere? i've been imagining a tech since i was in the 5th grade that could do this and it may come true within my lifetime..

  27. At 9:41 he tells the audience they are looking at a time distortion in a photograph, and no one makes a sound. Did it just go over their heads? That's amazing!

  28. I then am compelled to wonder if a better comprehension of the speed of Light itself will be gained through photography. This has high potential of teaching us a Lot! About Light! So how far away from the speed of Light is a trillion frames per second. What if we could photograph Light at the speed of Light. Then what would we Learn

  29. 09:40–10:00 “(At this speed) Events in the camera happen in a reversed order”..!!!?.. “By applying the corresponding space and time warp we can correct for this distortion”… WTF!!?. Way to gloss over the MOST INTERESTING PHENOMENON, Ramesh.. **So we are actually observing time reversal, in nature, on a quantum level at femto speeds!!**… IF THIS IS WHAT YOU’RE SAYING, THEN I THINK THIS IS FAR MORE IMPORTANT THAN SEEING AROUND CORNERS!!!

  30. it is just a camera special effects… don't believe this guy.. you cannot create a camera that can record trillions frames per second

  31. I don't understand what I see. The little wurm of laser light arrives at light speed. Right? So how does the bottle light up AHEAD of the incoming beam? And the sides (of the bottle) seem to light up instantaneously with the arrival of the light. The external reflections likewise. Surely this cannot be??

  32. reading the electromagnetic radiation is a fundamental step to the time travelling concept, with similar technology and good algorithms, we can clearly see into the paradigm

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