Mod-01 Lec-25 Strategic Marketing-Lecture25
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Mod-01 Lec-25 Strategic Marketing-Lecture25


So, today’s session will be on brand strategies.
Brand strategies in a way encompass many of the strategic ideas we have discussed in this
course from a marketing perspective segmentation, targeting, positioning, customer relationship,
customer loyalty, competitive advantage, different types of competitive actions; all of these
that we have discussed before can be sort of summarized structured and actualized in
the marketplace under the banner of brand strategy. So, as you see therefore, on top we have put
two interactive issues brand and offering. We have discussed this concept of offering
before and now we would like to emphasize that marketing success strategic success in
the marketplace is very, very closely related with the strength of brand and offering. As
we have discussed before, offering is actually a kind of a broad umbrella concept which encompasses
tangible elements of the product and services as well as intangible elements. So, when it
talks about tangible elements it is the things that we normally associate with product in
the 4Ps or marketing mix; that means the shape, color, size, weight, features, benefits, all
of those very tangibly definable aspects of the product that the service is done.
On the other hand, there are intangible elements of the offering which are things like the
emotional evocation from the product that the presence the sense of presence of the
product or the service and all of those. We will discuss it in a little bit more detail
and intangible also includes a kind of a new concept which we have not discussed before
but which we call agility. Basically, it signifies that how resilient is the product with respect
to new additions to it as well as how the product is resilient to withstand a negative
development or market downturns and so on and so forth; we will discuss it in a little
bit more detail. So, we of course therefore offering will include packaging issues, different
storekeeping units that SKU’s as we call them; that means in how many different sizes
or different shapes, colors, etc the product is available in the marketplace.
Related services the name that is associated or the logo or the symbol which are associated
with the brand and the warranties, guarantees, etc that are represented by that brand offering
or product offering these are all part of the broad concept of offering. So, that as
you can see therefore, some authors feel that brand therefore is a major constituent of
the broader concept of offering. Of course, some people would like to deal these two concepts
separately. It really does not matter as per as our today’s discussion is concerned, the
fundamental point is that the strength of your offering and the evolving strength of
the offering or the evolving strength of the brand are strong indicators of the success
of your marketing strategy. Brands actually help both buyers; so therefore, brand has
a positive correlation with buyer’s benefits and it also has positive correlation with
marketers. So, marketer’s advantages; so buyer’s benefits and marketers advantages.
Buyers benefits because if we remember the earlier model that we have discussed of the
buying process that is attention, interest, desire and finally the purchase action, attention,
interest. These are the tasks that we want to the major tasks of marketing activity to
create awareness, attract attention of the intent of the targeted buyers, create interest
in their mind and create desire and finally cause purchase action. Now a brand helps in
enforcing or rather shortening the time in attracting attention creating awareness and
creating interest. So, it reduces for the buyer search time or information gathering
time, time as well as in some way cost. So, if you introduce a strong brand preference
for Nokia and if the buyer is looking for a new phone then today there are so many different
varieties of mobile phones that are available in the marketplace.
If the buyer has a strong affinity towards the brand of Nokia or Samsung or Apple, then
in a way his or her search time, search costs get reduced. It also for the buyer signifies
a reduced risk perception which comes from his or her previous experience or experience
of his friends, relatives; that means the referral inputs which actually reduces the
risk perception and it also has this effect of cumulatively building emotional comfort.
So, a brand also therefore gives some kind of emotional comfort to the buyer that his
or her decision is on the right track is in the right direction; obviously therefore,
these are building blocks of long term relationship with the customer as we will see. Therefore,
the brand salience or the brand dynamics has extremely significant contribution towards
building long-term relationship with the customer consumer that we have discussed before the
importance of that in the strategic sense. The brand also represents some advantages
for the marketer in terms of better conversion rate from this AI stage that is a attention
awareness and interests stage to desire an action stage because ultimately this is what
contributes to our top line growth, this is what the purchase action, this is what brings
revenue growth, brings profit growth. So, ultimately we are interested in this conversion
from awareness and interest to desire and finally purchase action and this is facilitated
accelerated as strengthened this transition from awareness and interest to desire an action
is strengthen and accelerated by the brand strength or branding strategy. So, there is
a better conversion rate; that is an advantage from a marketer’s point of view and it also
helps to reduce the risk in launching new products or line extensions which we will
see. So, if Dove has a very strong brand connotation
in the consumers mind that it is moisturizing, it helps during winter for the demoisturization
that is caused by the weather. So, if dove has that connotation that it is soft, it is
moisturizing, etc, etc, then from soap which was the original offering from that Dove brand
stable they can go into shampoos, conditioners. So therefore, because of that strong brand
imagery they have this advantage of reducing the risk in launching a new sort of related
product. So, that is an advantage which a strong brand brings to the marketer. It also
helps in continuously creating the distinctiveness that is so important today in the cluttered
marketplace. So, strong brand with a strong association
projects immediately a distinctive image in the customer’s mind perception in the customer’s
mind. So a brand, what is a brand? There are many definitions but the American marketing
association definition and few of its derivatives are pretty good at this moment for us to start
with that a brand is the name, it is a is set of short terms, it is a sign, it is a
symbol, it is a design, all have that combination which kind of helps us to identify and differentiate
an offering from the rest of those in the market is this thing about distinctiveness
in the cluttered market that we were talking about. The other term which is important for us to
look at this moment is brand equity and brand equity is in a way is the premium that an
offering command in the market with respect to the other products in that category. And
in a way just as in the share market an equity valuation signifies the difference between
the market value of that stock with respect to the booked value. So, obviously better
stocks which have better equity represents a higher differential between market value
and the booked value; we often call it also the market value add or MVA. In the same way,
the brand equity signifies the perceived value that the difference between the intrinsic
value of the brand and the value in customers mind and what does that signify how do we
measure that we will discuss today. So, when a band has hire equity then the company
can have more leverage with channels a market channels, distributors, suppliers and can
obtain direct as well as indirect premium on their offering. So, it is a kind of a defense
against price erosion. If there is a strong brand it is often not that affected by market
down turn because it has a loyal course. So, there is a strong association between a certain
Glycerin soap brand. So, come winter customers will go and buy that product and therefore
their volume growth is not that affected by if there is a market down turn. So, other
soap sort products in that category may get to have upswing and downswings depending on
the disposable income available but one can see that some of these products continue to
do well. So, they are relatively stable, they are growth is more predictable and so on.
So, and in the same way because they have that predictability in terms of growth and
strength, the distributors will be interested in that product and also because of the continuous
steady stable growth in the volume you can command better terms from the suppliers. And
of course, as we were discussing that case of Dove that because it has this strong association
brand position with respect to created by its moisturizing soap which was kind of a
different connotation it created very successfully in the customers mind. So, they have been
equally successful in distinctively positioning their shampoo or their conditioner or their
skin lotion and so on and so forth. So, therefore higher brand equity helps us in creating new
products in that same category what we call brand extension. It gives us more leverage
with channels both in terms of suppliers and distributors and it obviously creates a defense
against price erosion. So, this is a very important model, we are
presenting this right in the beginning and we will present a more enhanced version of
this pyramid towards end of the session. So, it is very easy to understand that at the
right at the bottom and this is actually the higher number, this is whatever we have created
through our promotion and other marketing mix activities, we do get at least some buyers
to start with but these buyers are usually in the beginning they are transient buyers
and obviously they are very price sensitive because some of these buyers might be a person
who is looking at your new offering or your new product as possibly just to experiment
one time buy in preference to some other brand. So, you can through the traditional marketing
activities like promotional activities over different media, if you go in a kind of an
advertising blitzkrieg you can get some buyers in the store looking for your product. But
then only if we are able to deliver to the promise that has been encapsulated in the
promotion we can turn the transient buyer into a satisfied buyer.
So, we often call this as the level of brand performance. So, a certain percentage of the
transient buyers if your brands does deliver to the promise can be converted to satisfied
buyer, but today we understand there was earlier literature we really focused on how to convert
the transient buyer to the satisfied buyer. But today we understand that with the increasing
level of competition in every kind of market just satisfying the customer is not enough
we need to go beyond that. So, first thing that is important is to create a barrier against
switching or we often call it inconvenience of switching. The inconvenience of switching
obviously is created by the convenience that you offer to the customer beyond what is the
cost benefit of the offering. So, you may be offering more value compared to the price
that has been paid by the customer. So, your product therefore causes a satisfaction at
different level, but in addition to that you have to focus on various kinds of transaction
costs which are part of your acquisition cost of the customer.
So, many of those are invisible. They are not directly reflected on the price that is
printed on the product. They are like the time it takes to access your product, the
travel expenses to access your product, the ease of parking at in front of your retail
outlet and so on and so forth. So, there are many invisible elements in the so called transaction
costs. So, reducing the transaction costs, reducing the transaction hassle, in a way
builds barriers against switching. So, you have to create satisfaction and to retain
that satisfaction you have to continuously focus on this ease of access basically continuously
reducing all cost and hassle of the transaction of the purchase process. But if this is where
actually very few I mean as you can see as the pyramid becomes narrower after satisfaction
and the barrier against switching or rather ease of transaction. If we do many other activities,
if we focus in terms of marketing all these brand building activities, then only we create
emotional bonding. So, here we are talking about moving from
the cognitive factors in consumer behavior to the effective factors from the rational
reasons for buying your product or service to the emotional reasons arising out of the
bond with the customer which cause the buying repeat buying and referral buying and so on.
And lastly this is the prime target of today’s marketers is to co-opt the customer in the
marketing process is to have the customer as your partner. In a way therefore, the strongest
promotion today is the word of mouth and reference from the customer through the customer advocacy;
that means the customer becomes part of your marketing team. If you have been able to achieve
this level, then your brand really become salient, your brand becomes then a power brand.
So, whether your brand is a power brand or not depends on how many of your customers
voluntarily endorse, promote, talk about your product. So, many times therefore to understand
this customer advocacy today because social media is so active, the brands that are strongly
endorsed on the social media platforms where one customer talks freely to another customer
and sort of gives the positive points and maybe sometimes constructive criticism create
a buzz which is infinitely valuable for the marketers to create the strategic competitive
advantage. So, therefore this brand building pyramid today guides the marketing strategy
in many different ways as we will see just now. So, the communication strategy to build the
brand to progress along that pyramid that we just saw; obviously, we will have to start
with increasing benefits. These benefits will also include reducing hassles and indirect
costs, transaction costs, etc, the products service system quality which means that you
not only should think in terms of continuously enhancing the product quality, but you should
also look at all the services that are associated. So, you might be able to bring out a fantastic
refrigerator which actually scores highly in terms of performance and in terms of other
aesthetics, etc compared to the other offerings in the marketplace. But if you have not associated
with it, the installation service, the customer problem-solving service, the continuous monitoring,
so that the customer gets optimum value from your product. If those have not been also
made equally effective then this quality pyramid is not complete.
So, the sense of total quality approach in the marketing sense today must include the
presales services where you help customer by providing information to make choices,
then the quality of the product itself or the service itself and then also the post-consumption
support and problem solving support, the so-called warranty service, the guarantee issues, all
of those must be included to create a complete the quality initiative that should be part
of your brand communication and that is something that you must deliver; what you promise you
must deliver and that therefore becomes an important part of rising through this pyramid.
And then of course that is very common sense elements that a good brand has an easy to
remember, easy to pronounce, easy to recognize name and then of course, in the category of
that product and service combination the uniqueness also should be part of the strong communication
that is important for the first step to go from the transient buyer to the satisfied
buyer. And in a way it also helps a strong communication
strategy that is based on reality is a way to climb through that pyramid. The other building
blocks of that gradual strategy in enhancing the brand equity are based on the taglines
and some of those taglines have remained famous and have continued to strengthen. So, when
Nirma talked about washing powder Nirma with a particular jingle and which was widely promoted
through the radio and television and so on. So, it kind of created a very strong position
that what is Nirma and it is of course a debatable question that whether when Nirma came up with
salt a table salt whether that strong brand position washing powder Nirma helped or actually
in a way did not help the promotion strategy of the salt. So, that is something that you
can think about and discuss. So taglines, slogan, the distinctive color
scheme, symbols and logos, these are all part of the brand association which again are important
for the brand communication strategy and important for this first three steps in the brand building
pyramid. The other very common and well-known brand building strategy is to use brand ambassadors.
You see the celebrity endorsements are involving top stars, top players in either creating
a new brand or creating a distinctive position. So, therefore of course sometimes the celebrities
are overused and one can question the effectiveness that whether the same person can endorse and
create the same kind of brand imagery in the consumer’s mind from cement to fountain pen
to some perfume. And all kinds of diverse portfolio can a particular
celebrity’s imagery sustain all of that from a pain reliever to fountain pen to a cement
brand and all of that can be whether. But one can see sometimes like for example, recently
we have seen Sahara group they have launched a chain of retail format, the Q store and
the entire Indian cricket team is endorsing this brand and they are already brand ambassadors
because of the contract they have with the Sahara group. So, we see in all cricket matches
they have very prominently the name Sahara and now Sahara is leveraging on that that
ambassador strength to launch this brand new activity which is quite distinct from whatever
they have done before in launching this retail store. So, now we can see how exactly this thing
happens in the marketplace. This is as you can see we are looking at toothpaste and we
are looking at these different market segments children, young adults or teams, family adults
and we are looking at these various attributes. So, some people will be interested in the
flavor and color and some people will be some customers will be interested in the plaque
prevention or stain prevention, smokers and so on. So, with that you can create these
are imaginary brands like stain gone or ultra white or fresh clean or green stripe and so
on. And therefore is you can see in this name you create an imagery which is closely associated
with this stain prevention and plaque prevention and by the name itself, it is sort of related
to the target segment and in its packaging of values offered. And in the communication
strategy, this will be highlighted as opposed to, say, flavor and color and therefore, as
you can see all these become building blocks of the brand projection. So, to summarize therefore the brand is therefore,
some kind of a direction, how the marketing strategy will unfold, it encompasses purpose
and it is based on identity schema and meaning, creation in customers mind. On the other hand
the brand equity is in a way the way to measure brand value and it will be measured in terms
of by measuring loyalty, familiarity; I am not putting them in exact order; obviously,
familiarity will precede loyalty and cognitive, affective and cognitive behavioral aspects
or association. So, all these go in to creating the so called. So, as you can see both brands
as well as brand equity are multilevel concepts. So, they have a sort of a tangible
aspect and below-the-line sort of invisible
many intangible aspects. So, it represents a kind of a pyramid or a multilevel structure
which we often call the brand architecture. So, the brand equity management as a part
of your marketing strategy obviously will be to develop the positive brand awareness
and link it with a product class to create a distinctive identity. So, when you say MakeMyTrip.com,
it is a very clear positioning or Yatra.com. As you can see in all those names, they try
to create an awareness and category positioning relation in the customer’s mind quite distinctly
that what they are for, what is their purpose. So, as we discussed in the previous one therefore,
the identity and purpose must be closely related in the brand equity management first step
and of course, creating the strong relationship because it is a multilevel concept.
So, the tangible part and the intangible part; that means relating the cognitive as well
as effective parts, the rational and the emotional imageries in the customers mind must be closely
related and evoked through your brand building strategy and that can be done through your
promotional through the drama that is brought into those 30 seconds TV spots. Therefore
tell a story, create a situation that actually brings together this. So, if you watch anyone
of those when you look at this various shampoo ads whether when you look at the various kinds
of skin treatment products that are now flooding the market and you can see therefore, how
they are evoking a imagery that strongly links the subliminal messages as well as the so
called overt and covert messages that are being displayed. And in the brand equity management when we
give this promotions, in that 30 seconds when we trying to relate in the customer’s mind
the cognitive and rational as well as the affective and emotional issues and trying
to relate it very strongly with a possible need that the customer may have or you may
try to create. You must simultaneously continue to monitor that whether this identity and
meaning are getting really reflected in the thinking and feeling in the customer’s mind
and you have to also continuously measure as a part of your brand equity that whether
you are moving from loyalty to the advocacy level. That means the pyramid that we had seen that
this progress must measuring that whether you are progressing from satisfied buyer to
and a customer who is your advocate partner in your marketing process, this needs to be
continuously monitored, measured through various kinds of service and so on. So, therefore at this stage we would like
to say that successful brands provide organizations with financial benefits because they have
an economic value as an intangible asset which is created through a combination of tangible
and intangible values, cognitive and effective reason that we offer, persuading the customer
to buy the product or the service. That creates a competitive advantage and obviously therefore
it creates earnings and cash flow in excess of the return on the tangible assets. So,
all the expenses that you incur in enhancing brand equity, in getting a celebrity to talk
about your product on TV, you spend crores of rupees in doing that.
But that investment in building that brand equity is only valid is only part of a good
marketing strategy when it brings you that superlative earning and cash flow in excess
of the return that would have happened otherwise. So, in branding strategy we aim to derive
different benefits in terms of product clustering, product service integration as well as in
launching new products or expanding a relationship. So, there are different benefits that we can
derive from a good branding strategy. Some of them are namely, say, multiproduct
branding. In this approach, we use the same name for all the products in a class or related
category set of categories. So, like I was using the example of Dove. So that is used
for soap, that is used for shampoo, that is used for conditioner, that is used for skin
lotion and so on and so forth. So, you therefore continue to focus on building the association
between Dove and softness, moisturizing, winter care and so on and so forth. So, for example
we have very strong association between Nivea and winter and winter care skincare. So, if
Nivea therefore wants to come up with a deodorant, then one can argue that that strong association
with skincare and winter and so on maybe in a way a liability or a hindrance until and
unless they are able to create distinctly different evocation for the same name which
is difficult. So, that is why sometimes when a company like,
say, Unilever or Proctor and Gamble, when they have number of different fast moving
consumer goods in their offering basket, they equally strengthen or maybe perhaps spend
more in developing this multi branding strategy; that means each product or product line is
given a distinct name and reinforce. So, whether it is a Pepsodent, whether it is Ariel, whether
it is Surf, whether it is. So, all of these are different categories that are created
they may all come from the same company or companies competing in the same marketplace
and you create therefore. So, sometimes you may not know that who is the manufacturer
of Ariel or who is the manufacture of Colgate toothpaste and so on and so forth. So, because
the marketer is focused more on building the product brand or the service brand rather
than the corporate brand. Private brands are often way of enhancing
your revenue because you use the same facility to create products which may not be sold under
your brand but will be sold by different marketers. So, there are in the field of consumer electronics
or even professional electronics like computers, tablets, mobile phones, there are number of
manufacturers who manufacture for several marketers and when you get the product you
associate through the brand name from where it has come. So, you may not have any idea
who is the original manufacturer of Lava or Micromax and so on because they are more known
by the brand. And of course, also in the consumer a fast moving consumer goods many of the top
retailers like Big bazaar or Pantaloon or More or Reliance fresh, they will have their
own brands where they have their suppliers and who agree to supply with the store brand. So, multiproduct branding is also called sometimes
family branding or corporate branding and it is aimed at creating the dominance in that
offering class and one thing that is helpful is that as we were discussing the case of
Nivea or Dove. So, they have their strong brand equity which is related to winter, which
is related to skincare and therefore if they come up with a new variant then it helps.
So, as you can see for example, Ponds or Nivea they have different types of similar products.
So, something maybe for very harsh or the shampoos often use it also that you have the
same shampoo and you, say, create four variants leveraging the same brand awareness that something
which is for oily hair, something which is for dry hair, something which is for hair
fall, something which is for dry scalp and so on and so forth. So, your promotion cost
comes down because the customer is attracted to that particular brand of shampoo and then
maybe more pleased when he or she finds these other variants which kind of aims at customization. Multiproduct branding on the other hand because
it is a brand marketed under the same name in many countries, it therefore kind of creates
a global strength and of course it obviously needs a lot of investment to create that global
borderless image as enjoyed by Colgate or Coke or Pepsi or McDonald’s and so on. So,
it does need huge investment, but sometimes this multiproduct branding can dilute the
meaning of the brand in the mind of the customer. So, some people are now arguing that whether
Pizza hut now trying to get into pasta in trying to get into various other kinds of
Indian variant or Asian variant is whether that is strengthening the market position
of Pizza hut or it is diluting the original proposition of Pizza hut which is actually
to be a leader in the pizza market. So, in a way the current marketing strategy
of Pizza hut appears to be that they are trying to cover a wider range of fast food and their
promotion strategy in India which has been in a way successful in promoting Pizza hut
as family dining out place almost close to fine dining as it is called in that category
of restaurant service compared to the drive-in and drive-out type of fast food image that
Pizza hut has in U.S or in some other countries can be examined in terms of that whether a
multiproduct branding is helpful or is a hindrance in terms of brand strength. There are possibilities of course to create
sub-brand that it combines a family brand with. So, it take it can be like, say KFCs
salsa or KFC some new promotion that is going on that it is a multi flavored dip associated
with the original KFC proposition of fried chicken. So, you can see that sometimes it
may be very successful; sometime on a price quality continuum, it allows the company to
occupy different position, but there is a limit to this multiproduct branding and one
can see how, say, coffee Cafe day who though associated strongly with coffee but also try
to create associated offerings which items snacks that go with coffee and whether they
will be successful in creating that strong image or success in selling, say, coffee beans
or coffee making machines or their cookies and their brownies and all that. So, sometimes
this can be very successful this multiproduct branding, but if it is carefully executed,
continuously monitored, continuously evaluated in terms of customer’s perception. The multi branding as we discussed is useful
strategy when each brand is meant for a different market segment and though maybe associated
like Unilever or Procter, and Gamble, they are able to manage multiple brands something
that is for detergent, something; that is for toothpaste, something that is for soap,
something that is for shampoo and obviously this kind of company for their growth. And
for their relationship building with the customers entire lifestyle activity in that kind of;
that means washing, cleaning. So cleaning of teeth, cleaning of clothes are all these
because they come from related technologies in their operations. So, they created these
different brands which can leverage their technological and operational core competency
and can create different value stream. So, it is a good strategy from that perspective.
Sometimes of course, it happens because companies acquire for their growth.
Some growth happens what we call organic growth; that means the natural way in the marketplace
from their offering but sometimes inorganic growth; that means companies grow through
acquisitions and mergers and that sometimes create this multi branding opportunity as
well as sometimes multi branding challenge, because earlier those two brands might have
been competing in the marketplace. And now if you put this two brands and their customer
base together, whether you should kill one brand or you should retain both brands, whether
you can manage to retain both types of customers will be very involved strategy that cannot
be prescriptive but has to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. So, there are examples
when post-acquisition the both brands have been kept alive because one brand might have
had a very strong position in Europe and the other brand might have had a strong position
in Japan and therefore you retain both brands. So, sometimes customers are not even aware
that at the backend they are owned by the same corporate group. So, brand growth strategy finally is we present
this simple two by two metrics that you can have existing brands as we have discussed
in ANSOFF matrix. So, existing brands in the existing product class is you can actually
do line extension. So, if you have Lux soap then you can create some new variant within
Lux soap. So, this is what we call line extension but you can also take existing brand and go
to a new product class, so you may like to create a Lux shampoo or like we discussed
Dove. So, Dove can create different flavors in the Dove soap category, but if they come
to Dove shampoo, then they are actually doing what we call brand extension because they
are coming into a new product class. So, it is the existing brand in the new product
class, but it could be also a new brand in a new product class which means that the same
company Procter and Gamble can perhaps now get into, say, deodorant. So, it has really
speaking no correlation we assume that, that therefore it is a completely new product class,
it is a completely new brand. So, at that stage as you are putting the name of Colgate
or Dove or Ariel, etc to a
deodorant will not be; obviously, it has to be a new brand needs to be created because
the imagery, the identity, the package of benefit promised in Dove or Nivea or Colgate
or Ariel is not same as what it needs to be created here for, say, deodorant.
So, sometimes of course a new brand needs to be introduced in the existing product class
because you need to create some kind of a fight or a response to your competitive offering.
So, if Pepsodent is now coming up with a new type of innovative toothpaste which combines
the features of a cleaning properties of a toothpaste, the mouth freshening properties
of a mouthwash and the dental floss activities of which is needed for older customers. If
all that can be combined in one product and they create a unique position and if that
product becomes very successful, then competing products will have to competing companies
will have to come up with a response. So, therefore they may have to then introduce
a new brand in that existing product class. In case of Pepsodent they have actually used
in the existing brand they are creating a new product class. So, this is their brand
extension strategy, but the response from another manufacturer might come here because
they may like to position it based on their current strength on mouth wash as opposed
to their current strength on. So, Listerine might now come up with a new variant in the
tooth paste category and therefore then that becomes they may not like to use the name
of Listerine because it is so closely associated with mouth wash. So, they may decide to use
another name, another value proposition; even it can come in another format. So, it may
not come in a paste format; it may come in a gel format and it can therefore try to combine
the both virtues of the mouthwash category and the toothpaste category. So, the brand
growth strategies therefore can be thought of in terms of this variant of the ANSOFF
matrix.

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