Who is the Luke  in Lukewarm, Why Country Designations End in -an, and Much More
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Who is the Luke in Lukewarm, Why Country Designations End in -an, and Much More


Chris G. asks: Why are there so many countries
that have a name that ends in stan? I was also wondering why we call people from
many countries the name of their country ended with an, like Canada and Canadian? Denoting that it is a piece of the earth associated
with a particular group of people, the suffix -stan simply means “land of.” An ancient suffix of Persian origins, for
many people, particularly in Central Asia, the addition of –stan to the name of their
cultural or ethnic group identifies that a certain place belongs to them, e.g., Kazakhstan
is the “land of the Kazakhs.” -Stan’s roots go even further back than Persia,
however, to the Indo-Iranian element, *stanam, which meant both “place” or even more literally,
“where one stands.” This old construction is derived from the
even earlier Proto-Indo-European root *sta, which also meant “to stand.” The use of a suffix to denote “land of” is
not unique to -stan, however. In English, we often use –land to identify
a nation or place, and familiar words include England, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Ireland,
Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, and Thailand, as well as Maryland and Newfoundland. Other languages use the convention as well,
such as the German Deutschland. Adding –an at the end of country or place
names to identify a person’s heritage or ethnicity also traces its origins back to ancient times,
and the Proto-Indo-European root *-no-, which meant “pertaining to.” More recently (but still relatively ancient),
in Latin this element gave rise to –anus, as in Rōma ‎(“Rome”) → Rōmānus
‎(“Roman”). Over the years this has in turn morphed into
our current ending –an, as in American, Mexican and Romanian. Not exclusive to regional references, we also
see this nomenclature in many other words like Christus ‎(“Christ”) → christiānus
‎(“christian”). In addition, in English, this –an is often
modified with the addition of an “i,” such as in the aforementioned Romanian and christian,
as well as in things like Brazilian, Canadian and Parisian. And if you’re wondering, the suffix –ish,
as in British, comes from the Proto-Germanic suffix *-iska which meant “of the nativity
or country of.” It morphed into the Old English –isc before
becoming the modern English, Irish, Spanish, etc. Moving swiftly on, if you’ve ever wondered
why it’s “Lukewarm” and not something like “Stevewarm”, well, wonder no more- To
begin with, because nobody likes you Steve… In truth, it turns out, while today using
“luke” to mean “warm” has gone out of fashion, possibly due to the popularity of the name
“Luke”, at one time that’s what the word meant. This came from the fact that “luke” derived
from “lew” or “lewk” or “leuk”, in Middle English, which meant “tepid” (slightly warm). This in turn came from the Old English adverb
“hlēowe”, which means “warm or sunny”. Finally, “hlēowe” came from the Proto-Germanic
*hlēwaz, meaning “warm”. The word “lukewarm” popped up around the 14th
century as meaning “slightly warm”. Within two centuries, it also began having
a figurative meaning, that of “lacking in enthusiasm”. It isn’t clear where the name “Luke” came
from, but it was around long before the English word, “luke”, and even before English. “Luke” received a huge boost in popularity
thanks to the publishing of The Gospel of Luke, written around 70-90 AD. Speaking of names popularized by the Bible,
Mary was the most popular female baby name in the US from 1879-1946. It was finally beaten by “Linda” in 1947. Linda held that position until 1953 when it
was beat out by none other than Mary, which then held that spot until 1962 when it was
supplanted by “Lisa”. Since then, Mary has never regained the top
spot. Since “Lisa”, the most popular female
baby names were: Jennifer, Ashley, Jessica, Emily, Emma, and Isabella, the latter of which
has held the top spot up through 2010. Isabella first debuted in the top 5 in 2006,
appearing at position 4, and steadily climbed from there to number 1, no doubt initially
spurred on by the 2005 release of “Twilight” with the main character being Isabella Swan. Since Isabella the next most popular female
names were Sophia for two years and since then Emma has been back on top for five consecutive
years. Finally, ever wonder where the words geek
and nerd come from? Well, wonder no more: the first documented
case of “geek” dates all the way back to 1916. At the time, the term was used to describe
sideshow freaks in circuses. Specifically, it was typically attributed
to those circus performers who were known for doing crazy things like biting the heads
of various small live animals or eating live insects and the like. These performances were often called “geek
shows”. The word itself, “geek”, came from the word
“geck”, which was originally a Low German word which meant someone who is a “fool/freak/simpleton”. As for nerd, the first documented case of
it was in Dr. Seuss’s If I Ran the Zoo, in 1950. The specific text was: “a Nerkle, a Nerd,
and a Seersucker too”. It was just one year after the Dr. Seuss’
book, in 1951 in a Newsweek magazine article, that we find the first documented case of
“nerd” being used similarly to how we use it today. Specifically, they used it as being synonymous
with someone who was a “drip” or a “square”. There are two popular theories as to where
the word derived from. The first is that it was perhaps derived from
“drunk” spelled backwards, “knurd”. This was fitting to describe people who studied
instead of going out with friends and partying. More likely is that it came from a modification
of “nut”, specifically “nert”, which meant “stupid or crazy person” and was common in
the 1940s, directly before the term “nerd” showed up. The word nerd ended up becoming fairly popular
in the 1960s and by the 1970s was hugely popularized by the TV show Happy Days, where it was used
frequently. Incidentally, before “geek”, “nerd”, “dork”,
etc, the proper terms for these same ragamuffins were “Dewdroppers”, “Waldos”, and “Slackers”. Other common old slang words that were somewhat
similar in meaning: pantywaist, oil can, drip, stinkeroo, mullet, roach, schnookle, kook,
dimp, dorf, squid, auger, square, Joe Zilch, and dudd. As for us, we prefer the name we first learned
from a quote from Chuck Yeager- “Sexual Intellectual” Confused? Yeager explains that a “Sexual Intellectual”
is a “Fucking Know-It-All”. ๐Ÿ˜‰

About Ralph Robinson

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100 thoughts on “Who is the Luke in Lukewarm, Why Country Designations End in -an, and Much More

  1. Great closing zinger! I encourage more of that technique. Surely if anyone could coin that term, it would be the guy who literally worked his way up from private to general and was an aeronautic expert without depending on a degree certificate to get him a job. Go Chuck!

  2. It kinda made me a little ill to find out the most popular recent name "Isabelle" got that way because of Twilight.

    I mean… ugh.

  3. I first learned the word "lukewarm" in the early eighties, when I was three or four years old and obsessed with Star Wars. I immediately associated the word with Luke Skywalker and ever since, the word always conjures for me an image of Luke in a tub of water (whose temperature, clearly, is lukewarm).

  4. Finland has different name in finnish, it has name Suomi what is said to come from suomaa what means swampland.

  5. 5:42 that list reminds me of a Monty Python script., complete with some personโ€™s name. Poor Joe Zilch.. ๐Ÿ™‚

  6. Also, by the way, as I learned in the late 90's:
    Isabella is a belly dancer with a kleptomaniac's restraint—Tried stealing Helena's hand basket, made a fast getaway,
    But McQueen she ain't.

  7. Augur is an interesting synonym for nerd. Lukewarm or tepid is an important instruction for water temperature in bread making. It would be important to understand its parameter to get a good result.

  8. This video is all over the -stan
    It's like clicking down through random wikipedia links like a reckless child and reading everything out loud.

    Y'all ok?

  9. Did someone spike Simonยดs drink before this episode ? , Damn that was fast and furious.
    Or i am tired and thatยดs why i went , Who what why ,,i need to watch that again.

  10. Nerd came from 'nerts. The jocks would call the studious inert's which morphed into nerts and then nerds. In the 60s i would still hear the older guys use nerts

  11. I'm gonna start sexually identifying as a "sexual intellectual" just to see how many people I can confuse with it. I think it's funny and I'm a bit of a nerd myself, so it fits. ily internet. lol

  12. Lmao Roma Anus that's motion towards boy Romani that's and order write it out a thousand times or I'll cut your balls off

  13. Here's a question: what is the oldest language that we're pretty confident we know how to pronounce things in?

  14. You mispelled Khazakstan, the name just changed to Qazaqstan- Really!, we just got back from the capitol- Nur-Sultana, which a few weeks ago was known as Astana

  15. Also, England used to be variously called "The Land Of Eng," "Englestan" and "Englandistan." Oh, and "Albion," of course.

    Ps: All but the last one were fake.

  16. Leuk is still used in Dutch…it means 'fun' but not exceptional… if a girl is 'leuk' she's not considered hot, but also not an iceberg…

  17. The second letter in both โ€œhleoweโ€ and โ€œhlewazโ€ is โ€œL.โ€ In Old English, โ€œhโ€ could come before more consonants than it can in the modern language. โ€œhlโ€ was probably pronounced something like the modern Welsh โ€œllโ€ sound.

  18. Based on the first fact what is Pakistan land of and why is that word racist when saying Kazakh isnโ€™t?

  19. Odd that you didn't mention the giant movie-series that I feel "added" the word Nerd to the popular lexicon—REVENGE OF THE NERDS.

  20. By 1:42 Iโ€™m like โ€œwell that question escalated quickly…โ€

    End of the video Iโ€™m like:

    โ€œPeople stop asking Simon questions!!โ€

  21. Yay! ๐Ÿ˜ƒ๐Ÿ˜ƒ๐Ÿ˜ƒ๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ‘ Wor Simon Whistler knows everything he does lad! ๐Ÿ˜ƒ๐Ÿ˜ƒ๐Ÿ˜ƒ

  22. All these Isabella's named after Twilight. That's some damn child abuse. They've gotta go their whole lives knowing that and that's therapy bills right there.

  23. โ€œNobody likes you, Steve.โ€ I just knew it! Finally, somebody admits it. I can die happy now, secure in the knowledge that I was right all along; nobody ever did like me…

  24. All good except dork. "Dork" is the proper term for the penis of a rorqual whale. Obviously somebody felt he could improve on the insult "dick" (or even its Yiddish equivalent, "putz") by labeling someone as the biggest dick of all.

  25. I also think that the useful distinction between a nerd and a geek is that a nerd is someone who has some level of social incompetence, whereas a geek is someone who cares enough about a certain topic (I am both a science geek and a music geek) to subvert the capitalist paradigm of Work-Consume-Die.

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