Why Apple Products Use 30 Year Old Software
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Why Apple Products Use 30 Year Old Software

Narrator: In 1985, Steve
Jobs walked out of the doors of Apple and used $12
million of his own money to start a new computer company. Hi, I’m Steve Jobs, and I make computers. Narrator: NeXT would ultimately
be viewed as a failure. But that failure actually saved Apple. Apple went public in 1980 and was valued at $1.8 billion. But a few years later,
Apple was struggling. Both the Apple III and the Lisa failed to become commercial hits. So in 1983, Jobs decided
to recruit John Sculley, who was the CEO of Pepsi at the time, famously asking Sculley: And with that, Sculley was convinced. He left Pepsi and became the CEO of Apple. But tension started to
grow between him and Jobs. Because of internal struggles
and product failures, Jobs’ role was diminished. It was around this time that
Jobs came up with an idea for a new computer company,
separate from Apple. But he wanted to recruit
five Apple employees. This furthered tension
between Apple and Jobs. Something had to change. So in 1985, Steve Jobs left Apple. And moved on to launch a
new company called NeXT. Jobs: So, what should we do? Narrator: With NeXT, Jobs
wanted to create computers for universities and researchers. NeXT was a project where
Jobs could regain the control he had lost at Apple, and
he was confident enough in this idea to invest $12
million of his own money. In 1988, NeXT released its first computer. It was a powerful machine that embodied similar design philosophies
to current-day Apple. Even down to its custom circuit board. But the NeXT computer was expensive. Very expensive. While other computers
at the time ranged from $700 to a few thousand dollars, the NeXT computer had
a base price of $6,500. But the education market it was targeting already had a lot of older
computers and limited budgets. NeXT’s computers never found mass success. So in 1993, NeXT completely
stopped developing its hardware and shifted its focus
to the real innovation: software. The operating system for NeXT
computers was called NeXTSTEP. It was built on top of UNIX, an operating system that
dates back to the 1960s. Using UNIX as its base gave NeXTSTEP several key advantages over Mac OS, like object-oriented programming
and protected memory, which meant fewer system crashes. And it used developer tools
like Interface Builder, which made creating programs
much more intuitive. Despite NeXT computer’s struggles,
the software was popular. Jobs: People told us they love NeXTSTEP and they love the fact that
we built it on top of UNIX. Narrator: Programmers used NeXT machines to develop iconic games
like “Quake” and “Doom.” Even Tim Berners-Lee was a fan. He built the first web
browser on a NeXT computer. But NeXT couldn’t survive
on software sales alone, and this is where Apple
comes back into the story. After Jobs’ departure,
Apple found little success and continued to struggle. Under Sculley, the company developed several failed products,
like the Newton MessagePad. Jobs: Who wants a stylus? Yuck. Narrator: In 1993, Apple’s
profit dropped 84%. Sculley resigned from
Apple that same year. And with the success of
Windows NT and Windows 95, Mac OS was falling behind. Apple needed a new,
modern operating system if they were going to
survive the next decade. So Apple’s CEO at the time, Gil Amelio, turned his attention to NeXT. With NeXT, Apple could finally have an advanced operating system
to compete with Windows. In 1997, Apple bought NeXT for $429 million. That same year, Steve
Jobs returned to Apple. Eventually, he would
once again become CEO. But the big part of the deal? Apple would acquire the
NeXTSTEP operating system and use it to replace Mac OS, which was on version 8 at the time, combining NeXT’s software
with Apple’s hardware. In the original press
release, Apple stated: Soon after the acquisition, Apple started to develop
what would become OS X, based on the NeXTSTEP operating system. OS X integrated major NeXTSTEP features, like the dock and the mail app, and minor touches, like
the spinning wheel. Though most of the
similarities could be found under the hood. OS X used the same programing
language, Objective-C, and the Interface Builder tool. The first release of OS X in 2001 was a glimpse at the future of the Mac. The Aqua interface was
a radical design change from previous versions. And OS X also introduced things like System Preferences and
the column view in Finder. But it would take several years for Apple’s investment to pay off. Initially, OS X was sluggish
and had stability issues. It also required more memory than many Macs shipped with at the time. But with the release of
10.2, just over a year later, Apple improved stability and speed and cemented the popularity of OS X. Tim Cook: We love the Mac. Narrator: From the Dock to
the way programs are designed, OS X looks similar 18 years
and 14 versions later. Even in 2001, the user interaction felt
modern and intuitive. And the work Apple did based on the original NeXT operating system has helped to form the foundations of iOS, watchOS, and tvOS. If it’s an Apple operating system, you can trace its origins to NeXT. In December 2001, Macworld wrote, “We’ve been waiting for years,
but Mac OS X is now truly the operating system of tomorrow.” They were right. Almost 20 years later,
millions are still using it.

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100 thoughts on “Why Apple Products Use 30 Year Old Software

  1. but they failed in making it better than windows… if only they had given us an option to dualboot wirth any windows pc

  2. Jobs didn't leave Apple, he was removed and forced to launch the company NEXT as a showing to Apple that they've made a mistake. NEXT was never made to be successful or productive, it was a vengeful base to start a campaign to eventually force Apple to want him back. watching Apple hit failure meant his mission was a success, his replacement stepped down and he knew he was going to win. Therefore he released the best of software from next to encourage a buy out. Pocketed over 400% from the original startup cost of next and slipped back into Apple at the same time. A win followed by a win followed by a sneaky success.

  3. I was in the high school system in the late 80's as a student. The computer labs had:
    [1] IBM [compatibles?]: 80%

    [2] Apple 2 e : 20% and decreasing in senior computer labs.

    There was no Apple NEXT computer anywhere. It got nowhere in education. A reminder as well: the school market was a gold prize then because back then software had total incompatbility. ThaT IS, a word processor program's file would not open on the other brand of computer. So kids had to have the same computer at home. So to get the school market was 24 carat gold because then you got the home market.

  4. Didn’t they actually try to buy BeOS first (but it was too expensive), and went for Jobs/NeXT when they realized there was no other choice?

  5. Use a 30 year old system? You mean a fully up to date and modernized version of that system in which almost all the code was changed and updated? That’s better.

  6. Steve jobs did not quit apple, he was fired.
    U̶N̶I̶X̶ ̶i̶s̶ ̶n̶o̶t̶ ̶a̶n̶ ̶o̶p̶e̶r̶a̶t̶i̶n̶g̶ ̶s̶y̶s̶t̶e̶m̶, ̶i̶t̶ ̶i̶s̶ ̶a̶ ̶k̶e̶r̶n̶e̶l̶.
    Also saying that your iPhone is running NExTSTEP is quite a stretch, the original NExTSTEP code is not on any modern apple product whatsoever, NExTSTEP was revamped, recoded, and reengineered into what is now Darwin, which is in itself based on FreeBSD, which is a UNIX-Like Operating system, but is not technically UNIX, and Darwin is the core of MacOS, iOS, and WatchOS.

    Feeding disinformation to people is not how to gain an audience, especially since this channel is for tech alot of people are educated on this stuff

    EDIT: Apparently i was wrong about UNIX, sorry abt that.

  7. In some strange way, wish apple had bought BeOS… But then we probably wouldn't have the iPhone or the awesome cMP

  8. Not really a correct history, Jobs was kicked out by Scully and then he came up with the idea of making a new company

  9. Man the only thing that apple truly have is the os the macOS. And from what I read apple don’t care a lot about it…
    Macos is so pretty. Windows works but it is very ugly imo.

  10. Just a trivia for Objective-C developers out there, the prefix ‘NS’ that is present on all of the Cocoa classes to this day actually stands for “NeXTSTEP”.

  11. I miss the old Apple. Someone should give Tim Cook the boot. Just being real. He's gonna single-handedly run the company into the ground.

  12. Actually the mac os looks and feels a bit primitive compared to today’s windows, the biggest advantage is reliability, windows although modern still wobbles and crashes too much.

  13. Next failure? made two of the most known games and first web browser on it lol, sure it was expensive, but it was good, good os too, better then windows at the time, mac os still is, windows is only good for games.

  14. Yeah…anybody else who noticed that the "Mac OS X" screenshots in this video feature Internet Explorer in the dock?

  15. A good essay with a few problems. The most glaring is that the narrative makes it sound like Steve Jobs walked away from Apple, which was not the case at all. His project management style became a problem for employees and management, and he was fired by the board and famously usurped but the man Steve brought in himself, John Scully. It's one of the most famous and historical incidents in business management history, and well-documented. So it's disappointing to see this video essay Nerf it.

  16. Actually as MacOS is built on Unix, we are close to the 50th anniversary of its birthday on the 1st of January 1970…

  17. If it works, don't mess with it, simply improve it and make it better a bit at a time. Look at Microsoft; they had a huge winner in Windows 7 and all they had to do was modify it a bit and make it even better, but no, they totally changed it and now more and more people are moving to Macs instead as Microsoft 10 is nothing but malware pretending to be an operating system.

  18. I thought this video was going to be about why Apple still ships old versions of important *nix tools (it's probably because of GNU licensing, but AFAIK Apple hasn't confirmed it).

  19. I don't like Apple's hardware, or business practices, or even Steve Jobs but I need to admit their software is certainly think-free. . . . at-least currently.

  20. The biggest mistake Apple has made is that their Mac OS X system is not allowed on a PC, then they might get billions of users.

  21. OSX is tired and old. It still sucks to this day at proper secure networking and quite Frankly, Windows 10 is much more use friendly and is a better overall OS to OSX

  22. Mac OS X wasn't built with objektive-c. I bet my ass that darwin is purely written in c/c++. Objective-c is just the tool of choice for building gui applications with cocoa.

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